GROUP BY

description

GROUP BY GROUPING SETSCUBEROLLUP 是对 GROUP BY 子句的扩展,它能够在一个 GROUP BY 子句中实现多个集合的分组的聚合。其结果等价于将多个相应 GROUP BY 子句进行 UNION 操作.

GROUP BY 子句是只含有一个元素的 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS 的特例。 例如,GROUPING SETS 语句:

SELECT a, b, SUM( c ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (a, b), (a), (b), ( ) );

其查询结果等价于:

SELECT a, b, SUM( c ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY a, b
UNION
SELECT a, null, SUM( c ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY a
UNION
SELECT null, b, SUM( c ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY b
UNION
SELECT null, null, SUM( c ) FROM tab1

GROUPING(expr) 指示一个列是否为聚合列,如果是聚合列为0,否则为1

GROUPING_ID(expr [ , expr [ , ... ] ]) 与GROUPING 类似,GROUPING_ID根据指定的column 顺序,计算出一个列列表的 bitmap 值,每一位为GROUPING的值. GROUPING_ID()函数返回位向量的十进制值。

Syntax

SELECT ...
FROM ...
[ ... ]
GROUP BY [
    , ... |
    GROUPING SETS [, ...] (  groupSet [ , groupSet [ , ... ] ] ) |
    ROLLUP(expr  [ , expr [ , ... ] ]) |
    expr  [ , expr [ , ... ] ] WITH ROLLUP |
    CUBE(expr  [ , expr [ , ... ] ]) |
    expr  [ , expr [ , ... ] ] WITH CUBE
    ]
[ ... ]

Parameters

groupSet 表示 select list 中的列,别名或者表达式组成的集合 groupSet ::= { ( expr [ , expr [ , ... ] ] )}

expr 表示 select list 中的列,别名或者表达式

Note

starrocks 支持类似PostgreSQL 语法, 语法实例如下

SELECT a, b, SUM( c ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (a, b), (a), (b), ( ) );
SELECT a, b,c, SUM( d ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY ROLLUP(a,b,c)
SELECT a, b,c, SUM( d ) FROM tab1 GROUP BY CUBE(a,b,c)

ROLLUP(a,b,c) 等价于如下GROUPING SETS 语句

GROUPING SETS (
(a,b,c),
( a, b ),
( a),
( )
)

CUBE ( a, b, c ) 等价于如下GROUPING SETS 语句

GROUPING SETS (
( a, b, c ),
( a, b ),
( a,    c ),
( a       ),
(    b, c ),
(    b    ),
(       c ),
(         )
)

example

下面是一个实际数据的例子

> SELECT * FROM t;
+------+------+------+
| k1   | k2   | k3   |
+------+------+------+
| a    | A    |    1 |
| a    | A    |    2 |
| a    | B    |    1 |
| a    | B    |    3 |
| b    | A    |    1 |
| b    | A    |    4 |
| b    | B    |    1 |
| b    | B    |    5 |
+------+------+------+
8 rows in set (0.01 sec)

> SELECT k1, k2, SUM(k3) FROM t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ( (k1, k2), (k2), (k1), ( ) );
+------+------+-----------+
| k1   | k2   | sum(`k3`) |
+------+------+-----------+
| b    | B    |         6 |
| a    | B    |         4 |
| a    | A    |         3 |
| b    | A    |         5 |
| NULL | B    |        10 |
| NULL | A    |         8 |
| a    | NULL |         7 |
| b    | NULL |        11 |
| NULL | NULL |        18 |
+------+------+-----------+
9 rows in set (0.06 sec)

> SELECT k1, k2, GROUPING_ID(k1,k2), SUM(k3) FROM t GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ((k1, k2), (k1), (k2), ());
+------+------+---------------+----------------+
| k1   | k2   | grouping_id(k1,k2) | sum(`k3`) |
+------+------+---------------+----------------+
| a    | A    |             0 |              3 |
| a    | B    |             0 |              4 |
| a    | NULL |             1 |              7 |
| b    | A    |             0 |              5 |
| b    | B    |             0 |              6 |
| b    | NULL |             1 |             11 |
| NULL | A    |             2 |              8 |
| NULL | B    |             2 |             10 |
| NULL | NULL |             3 |             18 |
+------+------+---------------+----------------+
9 rows in set (0.02 sec)

keyword

GROUP, GROUPING, GROUPING_ID, GROUPING_SETS, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, ROLLUP